ND professors weigh in on NASA’s Mars announcement

first_imgDespite the news of liquid water on Mars last week, professor of civil and environmental engineering and earth sciences Clive Neal said this is not a new discovery. “They found water on Mars — well, we knew there was water. There had been water on Mars from the Mariner and Viking orbital images,“ Neal said Tuesday. “Quite frankly, what they found [last Monday was] reported in a paper in 2000.”According to Neal, the first paper to reveal the presence of water on the planet identifies what are known as “RSLs”, or recurring slope lineae. RSLs are visible on Mars’ surface as dark streaks running down steep craters and mountains, and they appear when temperatures are high and disappear when it gets cold. Neal said RSLs could actually be liquid water.After observing the RSLs for several years, scientists started constructing a hypothetical Martian water cycle, Neal said.“Water will come out of the subsurface, then it will flow for a little bit, then it will sublimate and go to the vapor phase or it will be absorbed into the subsurface,” he said. “It works kind of like a mountain stream — ice melts as temperatures rise, and small streams run down the slopes. With Mars, those streams, the RSLs, are likely sourced in underground ice, and when it gets cold, they either seep back beneath surface or evaporate into Mars’ thin atmosphere.”According to a paper published last week in Nature Geoscience, until recently, the only evidence of this liquid water cycle was photographs of RSLs. That all changed last week, when a high-resolution camera on NASA’s Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter identified the presence of perchlorates on the Martian surface. Perchlorates are small hydrated salts that act as sponges to absorb liquid water, and scientists hypothesize that if perchlorates are found,  liquid water nearby will almost always be found nearby.Director of NASA’s planetary science division James L. Green said during last week’s news conference that Mars is not the dry, arid planet NASA thought in the past.Rethinking Mars’ climate may mean rethinking Mars space missions, and that could mean sending astronauts. While that possibility is certainly being discussed, Neal said he is skeptical.“You have a conundrum with humans going to Mars, because of planetary protection,” he said. “If we send them to Mars, can we ever bring them back?”Neal said the issue is twofold — on one hand, humans cannot contaminate Mars with microbes from Earth, and on the other, they cannot have astronauts accidentally bringing back Martian bugs as potentially deadly souvenirs.That raises a whole new question about life on Mars, Neal said. Liquid water is required to support life, and the fact that Mars has it makes it all the more likely that Mars is supporting something other than dust. “It’s neat, we get liquid water on Mars now. That does increase the possibility for habitable environments for life — bug life, anyway,” Neal said. “There might be certain environments or niches where life, bacterial life, could still be abundant.”According to Neal, the next step is bringing samples back from Mars.“That was the goal of the Mars program in the next decade, according to NASA’s planetary science division, was Mars sample return,” Neal said. What has changed now is the kind of samples to bring back – with liquid water and the potential for life, the focus has shifted to bringing back samples of ice, of sediment around the RSLs and ideally of the perchlorates themselves, Neal said.Tags: Mars, NASA, waterlast_img read more

Cady Huffman Will Join Shear Madness Off-Broadway

first_img Related Shows Show Closed This production ended its run on April 23, 2017 Cady Huffman(Photo: Bruce Glikas) Shear Madnesscenter_img View Comments Tony winner Cady Huffman will step into Shear Madness off-Broadway beginning June 20. She’ll assume the role of Mrs. Shubert, currently played by Lynne Wintersteller. On that same day, Jonathan Randell Silver will take over for Ethan Dubin in the role of Mike Thomas.Not only is the show welcoming new faces; it will also open up shop at a new venue. The New York premiere production will move from New World Stages to the Davenport Theatre. The comedy takes its final bow at New World Stages on July 10 and begins performances at the Davenport Theatre on July 15 (there will be no performances from July 11 through July 14).Huffman earned a Tony Award for her performance in The Producers; she was also nominated for The Will Rogers Follies. Her additional credits include The Nance, Steel Pier and La Cage Aux Folles on stage and Master of None, Iron Chef America and The Company Men on screen.Silver returns to Shear Madness after performing in the Boston production. He recently appeared off-Broadway in Please Continue. His screen credits include Rover, Keeping the Faith, Dear John and Royal Pains.Marilyn Abrams and Jordan adapted Shear Madness from the 1963 play Scherenschnitt by German playwright Paul Pörtner. Their English reworking opened in Lake George in 1978 with Abrams and Jordan starring and at the helm. The show incorporates improv and audience participation as theatergoers question the cast of characters in a unisex hair salon after the landlord, Isabel Czerny, is murdered. Think Drood with blow dryers.The current cast also includes Jordan Ahnquist, Adam Gerber, Lisa McMillan, Kate Middleton and Patrick Noonan.Broadway.com customers with tickets to canceled performances or performances at the new venue will be contacted with information on refunds or exchanges.last_img read more