Climate change has significant implications for biodiversity and ecosystems. With slow progress towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, climate engineering (or ‘geoengineering’) is receiving increasing attention for its potential to limit anthropogenic climate change and its damaging effects. Proposed techniques, such as ocean fertilization for carbon dioxide removal or stratospheric sulfate injections to reduce incoming solar radiation, would significantly alter atmospheric, terrestrial and marine environments, yet potential side-effects of their implementation for ecosystems and biodiversity have received little attention. A literature review was carried out to identify details of the potential ecological effects of climate engineering techniques. A group of biodiversity and environmental change researchers then employed a modified Delphi expert consultation technique to evaluate this evidence and prioritize the effects based on the relative importance of, and scientific understanding about, their biodiversity and ecosystem consequences. The key issues and knowledge gaps are used to shape a discussion of the biodiversity and ecosystem implications of climate engineering, including novel climatic conditions, alterations to marine systems and substantial terrestrial habitat change. This review highlights several current research priorities in which the climate engineering context is crucial to consider, as well as identifying some novel topics for ecological investigation.
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Crosstown Doughnuts is bringing its limited-edition Tim Tam and Lamington doughnuts back in celebration of Australia Day, with a portion of sales going to bushfire relief efforts.Fifty pence from sales of individual doughnuts, £1.50 from the Australia Day six-pack and £3 from each Australia Day 12-pack will be donated to Wires – Australia’s largest wildlife rescue organisation. The non-profit has launched an emergency appeal to help it rescue animals that have been caught up in the wildfires currently ravaging Australia’s landscape.The doughnuts will be on sale from 24 to 26 January, the latter of which is Australia Day. They are:Tim Tam: Crosstown said it has shipped a “mountain of Tim Tams straight from Aussie shores” for this limited-edition doughnut. It features Crosstown’s cocoa sourdough filled with a chocolate custard made from Tim Tams, topped with a Tim Tam milk chocolate ganache and crushed Tim Tam pieces. Tim Tam is made by Australian biscuit company Arnott’s and consists of two biscuits with a chocolate cream filling and a chocolate coating.The Lamnut: Based on Australian cakes called lamingtons, the Lamnut sees Crosstown cake dough, with a layer of homemade raspberry jam through the middle, dipped in dark chocolate and rolled in desiccated coconut.“As an Australian in London, it has been very hard to see the level of destruction that is occurring while getting first-hand reports from friends and family,” said JP Then, Crosstown Doughnut co-founder.Although we are physically far away, it’s important we do our small part in supporting Wires through this challenging time. Our Australia Day doughnuts are always a real hit and, this year, the launch will be more meaningful than ever.”